• Feeligold

    Under its medical brand Feelicare, Feeligreen develops innovative medical devices improving everyday’s quality of life for patients facing chronic diseases.

    In the medical devices market segment, which has shown steady growth over the past 5 years, Feeligreen unique platform technologies can be configured to target multiple pathologies. These innovations, demanded by the healthcare industry, will extend the lifespan of a wide range of existing treatments.

    Our devices use cloud technology to monitor treatment compliance and allow healthcare professionals to provide customised treatment to their patients.

  • Feeligold

    Under its medical brand Feelicare, Feeligreen develops innovative medical devices improving everyday’s quality of life for patients facing chronic diseases.

    In the medical devices market segment, which has shown steady growth over the past 5 years, Feeligreen unique platform technologies can be configured to target multiple pathologies. These innovations, demanded by the healthcare industry, will extend the lifespan of a wide range of existing treatments.

    Our devices use cloud technology to monitor treatment compliance and allow healthcare professionals to provide customised treatment to their patients.

  • FondFC2 HD

    R&D

    Winner of the Innovation World Cup 2014/2015 in the “healthcare and wellness” category, Feelicare is actively working on several therapeutic applications, combining multiple technologies such as iontophoresis and photodynamic therapy.

    Feeligreen is currently developing an autonomous and secure programmable device (rechargeable) that combines the use of iontophoresis, thereby improving transdermal delivery of active drugs and a programmable technology for photodynamic therapy that can be adapted to the wavelength required for the treatment of various dermatological conditions.

    Feeligreen has signed strategic partnerships with leading private and public partners such as the University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), and pharmaceutical and cosmetic laboratories including the Pierre Fabre group and Galderma.

    Feeligreen awards and publications in the medical field:

    2014/2015: Innovation World Cup in the “healthcare and wellness” category.
    2015: Grand winner of the e-Health Summer University competition, held in Castres and sponsored by the Pierre Fabre laboratories, for two projects: chronic arthritic knee-pain treatment and a portable device for combined treatment of localized psoriasis.

  • FondFC2 HD

    R&D

    Winner of the Innovation World Cup 2014/2015 in the “healthcare and wellness” category, Feelicare is actively working on several therapeutic applications, combining multiple technologies such as iontophoresis and photodynamic therapy.

    Feeligreen is currently developing an autonomous and secure programmable device (rechargeable) that combines the use of iontophoresis, thereby improving transdermal delivery of active drugs and a programmable technology for photodynamic therapy that can be adapted to the wavelength required for the treatment of various dermatological conditions.

    Feeligreen has signed strategic partnerships with leading private and public partners such as the University of Nice Sophia Antipolis, the National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), and pharmaceutical and cosmetic laboratories including the Pierre Fabre group and Galderma.

    Feeligreen awards and publications in the medical field:

    2014/2015: Innovation World Cup in the “healthcare and wellness” category.
    2015: Grand winner of the e-Health Summer University competition, held in Castres and sponsored by the Pierre Fabre laboratories, for two projects: chronic arthritic knee-pain treatment and a portable device for combined treatment of localized psoriasis.

  • FondFC3 HD
    • Psoriasis
    • Bedsores
    • Vitiligo
    • Arthritis / Arthritic knee-pain
    • Psoriasis

      PSORIASIS Geographic location influence the likelihood of having psoriasis; disease prevalence increases with distance from the equator, and more than 2.5 million people suffer from psoriasis in France. Many are subject to stigma and discrimination, an aggravating situation: 4 out of 10 French say they prefer to keep their distance from people with psoriasis and 5% of the French population still think that psoriasis is contagious, according to a recent study.

      This non-contagious illness occurs on a genetic predisposition factors associated with environments (stress, infections, drugs, etc…). Psoriasis is a skin disease that affects men, women, children or infants. Psoriasis can occur at any age. Generally benign, this disease is very likely to seriously impair patients’ quality of life. Phototherapy is considered the first-line treatment of extensive and severe psoriasis cases. However the frequency of sessions (3 per week as usually recommended) can be a drag. Indeed it is not always compatible with patient’s place of residence or work, however compliance is a key factor in the management of psoriasis. Topical treatments are also considered first order treatments (dermocorticoid or analogue of vitamin D) or second line (retinoide) and the association of these treatments with phototherapy has been showing promising results in recent studies.

      Measuring patient’s compliance to the prescribed treatment, and the ability to customize the treatment protocol are keys to success in the treatment of psoriasis. Feeligreen’s research & development is leveraging its technology platform and product portfolio to construct an autonomous and secure programmable device for multiple dermatological treatments.

      Bibliography

      • Parisi R, Symmons DP, Griffiths CE, et al. Global epidemiology of psoriasis : a systematic review of incidence and prevalence. J Invest Dermatol 2013 ; 133:377.
      • Sivanesan SP, Gattu S, Hong J, Chavez-Frazier A, Bandow GD, Malick F, Kricorian G, Koo J.Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the efficacy of oral psoralen plus ultraviolet A for the treatment of plaque-type psoriasis using the Psoriasis Area Severty Index score (improvement of 75% or greater) at 12 weeks…Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. November 2009 Volume 61, Issue 5 : 793–798.
      • Parrish J, Jaenicke K. Action Spectrum for Phototherapy of Psoriasis. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 1981 76 : 359-362.
      • Beani JC, Jeanmougin M . La photothérapie UVB à spectre étroit dans le psoriasis vulgaire: utilisation pratique et préconisations de la Société Française de Photodermatologie. Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie, 2010.
      • Lignes directrices canadiennes pour la prise en charge du psoriasis en plaques. Première édition, juin 2009.
      • Lapolla W, Yentzer BA, Bagel J, Halvorson CR… A review of phototherapy protocols for psoriasis treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2011.
    • Bedsores

      BEDSORES Bedsore is a cutaneous ischemic lesion related to compression of the soft tissues between a hard surface and bony prominences. According to the Classification of the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel there are four levels of ulcer development:

      • Stage I: observable alteration of intact skin, related to pressure and manifested by modification of one or more characteristics.
      • Stage II: Loss of part of the thickness of the skin.
      • Stage III: Loss of the entire thickness of the skin with alteration or necrosis of subcutaneous tissue.
      • Stage IV: Loss of the entire thickness of the skin with tissue destruction or substantial damage to the muscles, bones or supporting structures.

      Pressure ulcers cause pain, discomfort, pain and suffering, a limitation of functional capacity. Bedsores also result in impaired self-image and relationships with others related to the presence of the wound.

      Pressure ulcer is responsible for an increased use of care and resources. According to a Dutch study: the costs involved in the management of pressure ulcers were third after cancer and cardiovascular disease. They estimate more than 50 000 euros the average cost of caring for a developped bedsore. The estimated cost of prevention per patient per day ranges from € 2.65 to € 87.57 in all environments.

      Its frequency is little known today and varies according to clinical situation. However bedsores can be prevented in most cases. The establishment of general preventive measures starts from the identification of risk factors. Thus the establishment of a support adapted to aid in the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers is one of the top priorities to reduce pressure between the skin and the patient support and facilitate recovery of mobility.

      It is in this context that Feeligreen is currently engaged in several projects, targeting the detection and prevention of pressure ulcers as well as the management of existing ulcers.

      Bibliography

      • ANAES. Prévention et traitement des escarres de l’adulte et du sujet âgé. Conférence de consensus. Novembre 2001, HEGP, Paris.
      • Health Council of the Netherlands. Pressure Ulcers. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands; 1999. Publication 1999/23.
      • Michel JM, Willebois S, Ribinik P et al. As of 2012, what are the key predictive factors for pressure ulcers ? Developing french guidelines for clinical practice. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medecine 2012;55 : 454-465.
      • Demarré L, Van Lancker A, Van Hecke A, Verhaeghe S, Grypdonck M, Lemey J, Annemans L, D Beeckman, International Journal of Nursing Studies ,Volume 52, Issue 11, November 2015, 1754–1774.NPUAP ; 1998, www.npuap.org.
    • Vitiligo

      VITILIGO Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease characterized by a patchy loss of skin color. Vitiligo affects a significant percentage of the world population, at a rate of 0.5% to 2% of the population depending on the study. It affects people of all ages and ethnic origin, more than half of them developing the skin condition before the age of 20 years. It is estimated that 1 to 2% of the population is affected in Europe. In France, there is between 900,000 and 1.2 million people affected by vitiligo.

      Vitiligo is a disease that can have profound psychological consequences, it is now well demonstrated that vitiligo often significantly impacts the lives of people who suffer from this condition, causing intense psychological disturbances and a significant decrease in quality of life.

      The gradual depigmentation of the skin which characterizes vitiligo is associated with the loss of melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. There are two main types: generalized vitiligo (the common symmetric shape) and segmental (affecting only one side of the body). Narrow spectrum UVB and class 3 corticosteroids are considered the reference treatments respectively for the vulgar vitiligo generalized and localized. Lamps delivering narrow spectrum 308nm UVB light showed high levels of repigmentation in localized vitiligo. The value of combining topical corticosteroids with phototherapy has recently been reported. These combined treatments offer better results than monotherapy and should be offered as first line in difficult areas to be treated such that the ends or bony prominences. However, current therapies require months or years of treatment and sometimes lead to disappointing results. There is a strong patient demand for phototherapy at home. Allowing the patient to receive effective and secure treatment while measuring adherence is a guarantee of success in the treatment of vitiligo.

      This project aims to design an autonomous and secure programmable device that incorporates critical functionalities such as compliance and the integration of treatment customization, whether performed by dermatologist practitioner or by the patient as a home care device, leveraging a e-Health data and communication infrastructure.

      Bibliography

      • Akdeniz N, Yavuz IH, Gunes Bilgili S, Ozayd n Yavuz G, Calka O. Comparison of efficacy of narrow band UVB therapies with UVB alone, in combination with calcipotriol, and with betamethasone and calcipotriol in vitiligo. Journal of Dermatological Treatment 2014;25:196–9.
      • Arca E, Tastan HB, Erbil AH, Sezer E, Koc E, Kurumlu Z. Narrow-band ultraviolet B as monotherapy and in combination with topical calcipotriol in the treatment of vitiligo. Journal of Dermatology 2006;33(5):338–43.
      • Hui-Lan Y, Xiao-Yan H, Jian-Yong F, Zong-Rong L. Combination of 308-nm excimer laser with topical pimecrolimus for the treatment of childhood vitiligo. Pediatric Dermatology 2009;26(3):354–6.
      • Le Duff F, Fontas E, Giacchero D, Sillard L, Lacour JP, Ortonne JP, et al. 308-nm excimer lamp vs. 308-nm excimer laser for treating vitiligo: a randomized study. British Journal of Dermatology 2010;163(1):188–92.
      • Lim-Ong M, Leveriza RMS, Ong BET, Frez MLF. Comparison between narrow-band UVB with topical corticosteroid and narrow-band UVB with placebo in the treatment of vitiligo: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the Phillipine Dermatological Society 2005;14:17–25.
      • Passeron T, Ostovari N, Zakaria W, Fontas E, Larrouy JC, Lacour JP, et al. Topical tacrolimus and the 308-nm excimer laser: a synergistic combination for the treatment of vitiligo. Archives of Dermatology 2004;140(9):1065–9.
      • Satyanarayan HS, Kanwar AJ, Vinay K. Efficacy and tolerability of combined treatment with NB-UVB and topical tacrolimus versus NB-UVB alone in patients with vitiligo vulgaris: a randomized intra-individual open comparative trial. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology & Leprology 2013;79(4):525–7.
      • Ongenae K, Dierckxsens L, Brochez L, van Geel N, Naeyaert JM. Quality of life and stigmatization profile in a cohort of vitiligo patients and effect of the use of camouflage. Dermatology 2005;210:279- 85.
    • Arthritis / Arthritic knee-pain

      ARTHRITIS Osteoarthritis is responsible for severe morbidity in developed countries where it is the second cause of disability after cardiovascular diseases. It represents about 13 million medical consultation per year in France. Due to the aging population, its prevalence is steadily increasing, currently estimated at about 17%. Within the 9 to 10 million people affected, 4.6 million suffer from symptomatic osteoarthritis. In 2002, the direct costs associated with osteoarthritis amounted to over 1.6 billion euros (about 1.7% of the total budget of national healthcare). Half of these costs are attributed to the patient management at the hospital, and about 570 million euros are allocated to drug prescription (1) (2).

      Osteoarthritis commonly affects certain joints, particularly the knee. The annual incidence of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis is 240 cases per 100 000 person-years. The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis has rarely been described and published and figures vary depending on the definition of the disease (radiological criteria, clinical, or mixed); however, in the 65-75 age group, for women, the prevalence of radiographic evidence of OA is estimated at 35%. Improving the quality of life (QoL) of patients with osteoarthritis is the 87th target in the list of 100 priorities for public health set by the French law of 9 August 2004.

      Osteoarthritis is also a chronic disease that once declared, persists. No curative treatment is available at present, but there are ways to act on its main symptom: pain. The management of a patient with knee OA is multifactorial. The main objective is to address the concerns of those patients including pain relief and improved joint mobility, in order to reduce disability and improve their quality of life (3).

      As far as drug therapy is concerned, the HAS (National Healthcare Authority) recommends as a first intention oral prescription of paracetamol, or tier I painkillers (4). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should only be used during painful flare-ups not responding to paracetamol.

      Thus the use of a micro-current device for delivering an anti inflammatory drug (NSAID) could be the missing link between the use of oral opiated treatments, often deleterious, and the use of simple topical treatments, concurring to a satisfactory level of effectiveness and utmost tolerance.

      Bibliography

      • Le Pen C, Reygrobellet C, Gérentes I. Les conséquences socioéconomiques de l’arthrose en France. Étude COART 1 France. Rev Rhum. déc 2005;72(12):1326‑30.
      • Épidémiologie de l’arthrose en 2011 [Internet]. Rhumatologie Pratique. [cité 29 avr 2015].
      • Zhang W, Nuki G, Moskowitz RW, Abramson S, Altman RD, Arden NK, et al. OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis: part III: Changes in evidence following systematic cumulative update of research published through January 2009. Osteoarthr Cartil OARS Osteoarthr Res Soc. avr 2010;18(4):476‑99.
      • Haute Autorité de Santé – Prise en charge de l’arthrose : le paracétamol en première intention lors des crises douloureuses [Internet]. [cité 29 avr 2015].
      • Barthel HR, Haselwood D, Longley S, Gold MS, Altman RD. Randomized controlled trial of diclofénac sodium gel in knee osteoarthritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. déc 2009;39(3):203‑12.
      • Song IH, Althoff CE, Hermann KG, Scheel AK, Knetsch T, Schoenharting M, et al. Knee osteoarthritis. Efficacy of a new method of contrast-enhanced musculoskeletal ultrasonography in detection of synovitis in patients with knee osteoarthritis in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Rheum Dis. janv 2008;67(1):19‑25.
      • Lequesne MG, Mery C, Samson M, Gerard P. Indexes of severity for osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. Validation–value in comparison with other assessment tests. Scand J Rheumatol Suppl. 1987;65:85‑9.
      • Kasha PC, Anderson CR, Morris RL, Sembrowich WL, Chaturvedula A, Banga AK. Subcutaneous concentrations following topical iontophoretic delivery of diclofenac. Drug Discov Ther. oct 2012;6(5):256‑62.
  • FondFC3 HD
    • Psoriasis
    • Bedsores
    • Vitiligo
    • Arthritis / Arthritic knee-pain
    • Psoriasis

      PSORIASIS Geographic location influence the likelihood of having psoriasis; disease prevalence increases with distance from the equator, and more than 2.5 million people suffer from psoriasis in France. Many are subject to stigma and discrimination, an aggravating situation: 4 out of 10 French say they prefer to keep their distance from people with psoriasis and 5% of the French population still think that psoriasis is contagious, according to a recent study.

      This non-contagious illness occurs on a genetic predisposition factors associated with environments (stress, infections, drugs, etc…). Psoriasis is a skin disease that affects men, women, children or infants. Psoriasis can occur at any age. Generally benign, this disease is very likely to seriously impair patients’ quality of life. Phototherapy is considered the first-line treatment of extensive and severe psoriasis cases. However the frequency of sessions (3 per week as usually recommended) can be a drag. Indeed it is not always compatible with patient’s place of residence or work, however compliance is a key factor in the management of psoriasis. Topical treatments are also considered first order treatments (dermocorticoid or analogue of vitamin D) or second line (retinoide) and the association of these treatments with phototherapy has been showing promising results in recent studies.

      Measuring patient’s compliance to the prescribed treatment, and the ability to customize the treatment protocol are keys to success in the treatment of psoriasis. Feeligreen’s research & development is leveraging its technology platform and product portfolio to construct an autonomous and secure programmable device for multiple dermatological treatments.

      Bibliography

      • Parisi R, Symmons DP, Griffiths CE, et al. Global epidemiology of psoriasis : a systematic review of incidence and prevalence. J Invest Dermatol 2013 ; 133:377.
      • Sivanesan SP, Gattu S, Hong J, Chavez-Frazier A, Bandow GD, Malick F, Kricorian G, Koo J.Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of the efficacy of oral psoralen plus ultraviolet A for the treatment of plaque-type psoriasis using the Psoriasis Area Severty Index score (improvement of 75% or greater) at 12 weeks…Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. November 2009 Volume 61, Issue 5 : 793–798.
      • Parrish J, Jaenicke K. Action Spectrum for Phototherapy of Psoriasis. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 1981 76 : 359-362.
      • Beani JC, Jeanmougin M . La photothérapie UVB à spectre étroit dans le psoriasis vulgaire: utilisation pratique et préconisations de la Société Française de Photodermatologie. Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie, 2010.
      • Lignes directrices canadiennes pour la prise en charge du psoriasis en plaques. Première édition, juin 2009.
      • Lapolla W, Yentzer BA, Bagel J, Halvorson CR… A review of phototherapy protocols for psoriasis treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2011.
    • Bedsores

      BEDSORES Bedsore is a cutaneous ischemic lesion related to compression of the soft tissues between a hard surface and bony prominences. According to the Classification of the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel there are four levels of ulcer development:

      • Stage I: observable alteration of intact skin, related to pressure and manifested by modification of one or more characteristics.
      • Stage II: Loss of part of the thickness of the skin.
      • Stage III: Loss of the entire thickness of the skin with alteration or necrosis of subcutaneous tissue.
      • Stage IV: Loss of the entire thickness of the skin with tissue destruction or substantial damage to the muscles, bones or supporting structures.

      Pressure ulcers cause pain, discomfort, pain and suffering, a limitation of functional capacity. Bedsores also result in impaired self-image and relationships with others related to the presence of the wound.

      Pressure ulcer is responsible for an increased use of care and resources. According to a Dutch study: the costs involved in the management of pressure ulcers were third after cancer and cardiovascular disease. They estimate more than 50 000 euros the average cost of caring for a developped bedsore. The estimated cost of prevention per patient per day ranges from € 2.65 to € 87.57 in all environments.

      Its frequency is little known today and varies according to clinical situation. However bedsores can be prevented in most cases. The establishment of general preventive measures starts from the identification of risk factors. Thus the establishment of a support adapted to aid in the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers is one of the top priorities to reduce pressure between the skin and the patient support and facilitate recovery of mobility.

      It is in this context that Feeligreen is currently engaged in several projects, targeting the detection and prevention of pressure ulcers as well as the management of existing ulcers.

      Bibliography

      • ANAES. Prévention et traitement des escarres de l’adulte et du sujet âgé. Conférence de consensus. Novembre 2001, HEGP, Paris.
      • Health Council of the Netherlands. Pressure Ulcers. The Hague: Health Council of the Netherlands; 1999. Publication 1999/23.
      • Michel JM, Willebois S, Ribinik P et al. As of 2012, what are the key predictive factors for pressure ulcers ? Developing french guidelines for clinical practice. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medecine 2012;55 : 454-465.
      • Demarré L, Van Lancker A, Van Hecke A, Verhaeghe S, Grypdonck M, Lemey J, Annemans L, D Beeckman, International Journal of Nursing Studies ,Volume 52, Issue 11, November 2015, 1754–1774.NPUAP ; 1998, www.npuap.org.
    • Vitiligo

      VITILIGO Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease characterized by a patchy loss of skin color. Vitiligo affects a significant percentage of the world population, at a rate of 0.5% to 2% of the population depending on the study. It affects people of all ages and ethnic origin, more than half of them developing the skin condition before the age of 20 years. It is estimated that 1 to 2% of the population is affected in Europe. In France, there is between 900,000 and 1.2 million people affected by vitiligo.

      Vitiligo is a disease that can have profound psychological consequences, it is now well demonstrated that vitiligo often significantly impacts the lives of people who suffer from this condition, causing intense psychological disturbances and a significant decrease in quality of life.

      The gradual depigmentation of the skin which characterizes vitiligo is associated with the loss of melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis. There are two main types: generalized vitiligo (the common symmetric shape) and segmental (affecting only one side of the body). Narrow spectrum UVB and class 3 corticosteroids are considered the reference treatments respectively for the vulgar vitiligo generalized and localized. Lamps delivering narrow spectrum 308nm UVB light showed high levels of repigmentation in localized vitiligo. The value of combining topical corticosteroids with phototherapy has recently been reported. These combined treatments offer better results than monotherapy and should be offered as first line in difficult areas to be treated such that the ends or bony prominences. However, current therapies require months or years of treatment and sometimes lead to disappointing results. There is a strong patient demand for phototherapy at home. Allowing the patient to receive effective and secure treatment while measuring adherence is a guarantee of success in the treatment of vitiligo.

      This project aims to design an autonomous and secure programmable device that incorporates critical functionalities such as compliance and the integration of treatment customization, whether performed by dermatologist practitioner or by the patient as a home care device, leveraging a e-Health data and communication infrastructure.

      Bibliography

      • Akdeniz N, Yavuz IH, Gunes Bilgili S, Ozayd n Yavuz G, Calka O. Comparison of efficacy of narrow band UVB therapies with UVB alone, in combination with calcipotriol, and with betamethasone and calcipotriol in vitiligo. Journal of Dermatological Treatment 2014;25:196–9.
      • Arca E, Tastan HB, Erbil AH, Sezer E, Koc E, Kurumlu Z. Narrow-band ultraviolet B as monotherapy and in combination with topical calcipotriol in the treatment of vitiligo. Journal of Dermatology 2006;33(5):338–43.
      • Hui-Lan Y, Xiao-Yan H, Jian-Yong F, Zong-Rong L. Combination of 308-nm excimer laser with topical pimecrolimus for the treatment of childhood vitiligo. Pediatric Dermatology 2009;26(3):354–6.
      • Le Duff F, Fontas E, Giacchero D, Sillard L, Lacour JP, Ortonne JP, et al. 308-nm excimer lamp vs. 308-nm excimer laser for treating vitiligo: a randomized study. British Journal of Dermatology 2010;163(1):188–92.
      • Lim-Ong M, Leveriza RMS, Ong BET, Frez MLF. Comparison between narrow-band UVB with topical corticosteroid and narrow-band UVB with placebo in the treatment of vitiligo: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of the Phillipine Dermatological Society 2005;14:17–25.
      • Passeron T, Ostovari N, Zakaria W, Fontas E, Larrouy JC, Lacour JP, et al. Topical tacrolimus and the 308-nm excimer laser: a synergistic combination for the treatment of vitiligo. Archives of Dermatology 2004;140(9):1065–9.
      • Satyanarayan HS, Kanwar AJ, Vinay K. Efficacy and tolerability of combined treatment with NB-UVB and topical tacrolimus versus NB-UVB alone in patients with vitiligo vulgaris: a randomized intra-individual open comparative trial. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology & Leprology 2013;79(4):525–7.
      • Ongenae K, Dierckxsens L, Brochez L, van Geel N, Naeyaert JM. Quality of life and stigmatization profile in a cohort of vitiligo patients and effect of the use of camouflage. Dermatology 2005;210:279- 85.
    • Arthritis / Arthritic knee-pain

      ARTHRITIS Osteoarthritis is responsible for severe morbidity in developed countries where it is the second cause of disability after cardiovascular diseases. It represents about 13 million medical consultation per year in France. Due to the aging population, its prevalence is steadily increasing, currently estimated at about 17%. Within the 9 to 10 million people affected, 4.6 million suffer from symptomatic osteoarthritis. In 2002, the direct costs associated with osteoarthritis amounted to over 1.6 billion euros (about 1.7% of the total budget of national healthcare). Half of these costs are attributed to the patient management at the hospital, and about 570 million euros are allocated to drug prescription (1) (2).

      Osteoarthritis commonly affects certain joints, particularly the knee. The annual incidence of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis is 240 cases per 100 000 person-years. The prevalence of knee osteoarthritis has rarely been described and published and figures vary depending on the definition of the disease (radiological criteria, clinical, or mixed); however, in the 65-75 age group, for women, the prevalence of radiographic evidence of OA is estimated at 35%. Improving the quality of life (QoL) of patients with osteoarthritis is the 87th target in the list of 100 priorities for public health set by the French law of 9 August 2004.

      Osteoarthritis is also a chronic disease that once declared, persists. No curative treatment is available at present, but there are ways to act on its main symptom: pain. The management of a patient with knee OA is multifactorial. The main objective is to address the concerns of those patients including pain relief and improved joint mobility, in order to reduce disability and improve their quality of life (3).

      As far as drug therapy is concerned, the HAS (National Healthcare Authority) recommends as a first intention oral prescription of paracetamol, or tier I painkillers (4). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should only be used during painful flare-ups not responding to paracetamol.

      Thus the use of a micro-current device for delivering an anti inflammatory drug (NSAID) could be the missing link between the use of oral opiated treatments, often deleterious, and the use of simple topical treatments, concurring to a satisfactory level of effectiveness and utmost tolerance.

      Bibliography

      • Le Pen C, Reygrobellet C, Gérentes I. Les conséquences socioéconomiques de l’arthrose en France. Étude COART 1 France. Rev Rhum. déc 2005;72(12):1326‑30.
      • Épidémiologie de l’arthrose en 2011 [Internet]. Rhumatologie Pratique. [cité 29 avr 2015].
      • Zhang W, Nuki G, Moskowitz RW, Abramson S, Altman RD, Arden NK, et al. OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis: part III: Changes in evidence following systematic cumulative update of research published through January 2009. Osteoarthr Cartil OARS Osteoarthr Res Soc. avr 2010;18(4):476‑99.
      • Haute Autorité de Santé – Prise en charge de l’arthrose : le paracétamol en première intention lors des crises douloureuses [Internet]. [cité 29 avr 2015].
      • Barthel HR, Haselwood D, Longley S, Gold MS, Altman RD. Randomized controlled trial of diclofénac sodium gel in knee osteoarthritis. Semin Arthritis Rheum. déc 2009;39(3):203‑12.
      • Song IH, Althoff CE, Hermann KG, Scheel AK, Knetsch T, Schoenharting M, et al. Knee osteoarthritis. Efficacy of a new method of contrast-enhanced musculoskeletal ultrasonography in detection of synovitis in patients with knee osteoarthritis in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Rheum Dis. janv 2008;67(1):19‑25.
      • Lequesne MG, Mery C, Samson M, Gerard P. Indexes of severity for osteoarthritis of the hip and knee. Validation–value in comparison with other assessment tests. Scand J Rheumatol Suppl. 1987;65:85‑9.
      • Kasha PC, Anderson CR, Morris RL, Sembrowich WL, Chaturvedula A, Banga AK. Subcutaneous concentrations following topical iontophoretic delivery of diclofenac. Drug Discov Ther. oct 2012;6(5):256‑62.